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Wednesday, December 23, 2009

A Family Approach - Cognitive Therapy For Children

Posted by patrick

By Veronica Carrillo

Whether people would like to admit it or not, almost everyone exhibits some kind of behavior that can be classified as prejudice. While some might take offense to this statement, a loose definition of the word prejudice is the negative judgment of a group or its individual members. An example of this is if a person sees a group of younger, rowdier looking kids on a bus, one might be inclined to think that they might make your ride a little less enjoyable. Prejudice in itself is a natural thought process does not necessarily have to be connected with racism. It is not wrong or a crime to have certain prejudices, however, it is wrong when these prejudices turn into social psychological discrimination, which is the action taken due to the prejudices.

There are many different types of social psychological discrimination, some of the most obvious ranging from some of the most blatant acts of racism, such as hate crimes, and others such as refusal to hire a specific race or group. However, in today's society, the forms of social psychological discrimination are not so obvious. Here is a list of the more subtle forms of discrimination.

Under conditions of severe torture, as it was the case with most witches, victims are able to recreate and falsify their testimonies so that to fit the ideas and suggestions imposed by the persecutors. This was also the case with thousands of Soviet civilians persecuted by the Soviet regime, especially in the 1930s-1950s. Stalin's pupils were looking for organizations and names of other "enemies of people". Their suspects, under conditions of extreme suffering, could often provide names of numerous "accomplices" who were also, as they believed, cooperated and directed from and by the enemy (western capitalism).

This effect (falsification of memories) made leaders and organizers of Gulag Labour camps convinced that there were indeed numerous enemies, groups, and plots against the Soviet state. Hence, it is normal that modern Siberian FSB-KGB agents, who have developed under control of past mass Gulag murderers and who were never debriefed and explained the silly foundations of this hunt, are still under the influence of this decades-old mass paranoia. Inability of modern Russian leaders to have a clear view on silliness and primitivism of Stalinism further promotes existence of groups of Siberian agents who continue to murder civilians due to the fear of the insight (the "Aha" experience seems for them too frightful).

The simplest experiment on obedience to authority and gullibility of ordinary people, in making them murder accomplices, was conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram in the 1960s. The experiment was reproduced with the same basic result in many countries. In these studies, in spite of extreme resistance of the learners (victims), who yelled, screamed, and demanded to stop their torture during the later part, well over 50% of subjects ("teachers") continued punishment until to the presumably lethal end. Obviously, in such conditions of extreme uncooperativeness of their victims, Milgram's subjects experienced increasing and severe emotional shock during last stages of the experiment and most of them could not become confident murder accomplices.

In all these situations, authorities managed to fool ordinary people using various excuses ("social well being", "harmonious one nation Aryan world", "universal communism", and "science and learning") into killing of totally innocent people. The ability of these subjects-perpetrators to get the basic insight ("Aha, I was fooled!") into their manipulated roles (of being fooled) depended on reactions and "opinions" of their victims. Hence, perpetrators' ability to have the insight ranged from nearly zero in case of witch-hunting and Stalin's repressions and up to almost 100% in case of the Milgram study.

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